佛言、欲知佛性義、當觀時節因縁。時節若至、佛性現前。

いま佛性義をしらんとおもはばといふは、ただ知のみにあらず、行ぜんとおもはば、證せんとおもはば、とかんとおもはばとも、わすれんとおもはばともいふなり。かの説行證忘錯不錯等も、しかしながら時節の因縁なり。時節の因縁を觀ずるには、時節の因縁をもて觀ずるなり。拂子拄杖等をもて相觀するなり。さらに有漏智無漏智本覺始覺無覺正覺等の智をもちゐるには、觀ぜられざるなり。

當觀といふは、能觀所觀にかかはれず、正觀邪觀等に準すべきにあらず、これ當觀なり。當觀なるがゆゑに不自觀なり、不他觀なり。時節因縁聻なり、超越因縁なり。佛性聻なり、脱體佛性なり。佛佛聻なり、性性聻なり。

時節若至の道を、古今のやから往往におもはく、佛性の現前する時節の向後にあらんずるをまつなりとおもへり。かくのごとく修行しゆくところに、自然に佛性現前の時節にあふ。時節いたらざれば、參師問法するにも、辨道功夫するにも、現前せずといふ。恁麼見取して、いたづらに紅塵にかへり、むなしく雲漢をまぼる。かくのごとくのたぐひ、おそらくは天然外道の流類なり。いはゆる欲知佛性義は、たとへば當知佛性義といふなり。當觀時節因縁といふは、當知時節因縁といふなり。いはゆる佛性をしらんとおもはば、しるべし、時節因縁これなり。時節若至といふは、すでに時節いたれり、なにの疑著すべきところかあらんとなり。疑著時節さもあらばあれ、還我佛性來なり。しるべし、時節若至は、十二時中不空過なり。若至は既至といはんがごとし。時節若至すれば、佛性不至なり。しかあればすなはち、時節すでにいたれば、これ佛性の現前なり。あるひは其理自彰なり。おほよそ時節の若至せざる時節いまだあらず、佛性の現前せざる佛性あらざるなり。

Dōgen, Shōbōgenzō [Treasury of the Eye of the True Dharma], Chapter 3: Buddha Nature

The Buddha said, “If you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature, you should observe the conditions of the time. If the time arrives, the buddha nature appears.”

This “if you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature” is not just about knowing: it means also “if you wish to practice it,” “if you wish to verify it,” “if you wish to preach it,” and “if you wish to forget it.” That preaching, practicing, verifying, forgetting, mistaking, and not mistaking are, all of them, “the conditions of the time.” In “observing the conditions of the time,” one observes using the conditions of the time; one mutually observes using the whisk, the staff, and so on. They cannot be observed using in addition the wisdoms of “contaminated wisdom,” “uncontaminated wisdom,” “original awakening,” “initial awakening,” “non-awakening,” “right awakening,” and the like.

[The meaning of] “should observe” has nothing to do with the observer or what is observed; it should not be guaged by such [notions] as right observation or false observation: it is “should observe.” Because it is “should observe,” it is not one’s own observing, it is not another’s observing. It is the very “conditions of the time” themselves; it transcends conditions. It is the very buddha nature itself; it is the buddha nature with body cast off. It is each buddha himself; it is each nature itself.

A bunch in the past and present have frequently thought the words “if the time arrives” mean that one awaits a time later when the buddha nature might appear. “Continuing to practice in this way,” they say, “one encounters the time when the buddha nature appears naturally; if the time does not arrive, even though one visits a teacher and asks about the dharma, even though one makes concentrated effort to pursue the way, it will not appear.” Taking such a view, they return in vain to “the red dust,” they stare vacantly at the milky way. Types like this are doubtless followers of the alien path of “the naturalists.”

What is called “if you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature” is saying, for example, “you should know the meaning of the buddha nature.” To say “you should observe the conditions of the time” is to say “you should know the conditions of the time.” If you wish to know what is called “the buddha nature,” you should know it is precisely “the conditions of the time.” To say, “if the time arrives,” means “the time has already arrived; what is there to doubt?” Let doubting the time be as it may, “return the buddha nature to me.” We should realize that “if the time arrives” is “not passing the twelve times in vain.” “If it arrives” is like saying “it has arrived.” If it were “if the time arrives,” the buddha nature would not arrive; therefore, since the time has already arrived, this is the appearance of the buddha nature. Or “its principle is self evident.” In sum, there has never been a time when the time does not arrive, nor a buddha nature that does not appear.


the accelerated slot machine is a metaphor for what Rosa sees happening in modern life. Even as time-saving technology arrives to pare tedious tasks, there seems to be ever more to do. “We don’t have any time,” he writes, “although we’ve gained far more than we needed before.” Consider email. If writing and sending an email only takes half the time of writing a letter, says Rosa, one should be gaining time. But what happened to the time surplus? It has simply gone into the writing and reading of more emails.
 Rosa says the “technical” acceleration of being able to send and receive more emails, at any time, to anyone in the world, is matched by a “social” acceleration in which people are expected to be able to send and receive emails at any time, in any place. The desire to keep up with this acceleration in the pace of life thus begets a call for faster technologies to stem the tide. And faced with a scarcity of time (either real or perceived), we react with a “compression of episodes of action”—doing more things, faster, or multitasking. This increasingly dense collection of smaller, decontextualized events bump up against each other, but lack overall connection or meaning. What is the temporal experience of reading several hundred Tweets versus one article, and what is remembered afterwards?
 Referring to the theorist Walter Benjamin, Rosa argues that the greater the number of “lived events per unit of time,” the less likely it is these are to transform into “experiences.” Benjamin argued that we tried to capture these moments with physical souvenirs, including photographs, which could later be accessed in an attempt to reinvoke memories. Of course, this process has accelerated, and the physical souvenir is now as quaint as the physical photograph. In Instagram, we have even developed a kind of souvenir of the present: An endless photography of moments suggests that we do not trust that they will actually become moments, as if we were photographing not to know that the event happened, but that it is happening.


Et si quelque importun venait me déranger pendant que mon regard repose sur ce délicieux cadran, si quelque Génie malhonnête et intolérant, quelque Démon du contretemps venait me dire: “Que regardes-tu là avec tant de soin? Que cherches-tu dans les yeux de cet être? Y vois-tu l’heure, mortel prodigue et fainéant?” je répondrais sans hésiter: “Oui, je vois l’heure; il est l’Eternité!” 
[And if some importunate person were to come and disturb me while my gaze rests on this delicious dial, if some false and intolerant spirit, some demon of unlucky accident, were to come and say to me, “What are you looking at with such intensity? What do you seek in the eyes of this being? Do you see there the time? Ah, spendthrift and do-nothing mortal!” I should reply unhesitatingly “Yes, I see the time; it is eternity.”]
——-
 猫背 (neko-ze; cat-back)
 - curved back
 - dowager’s hump
 - forward head posture
 - gibbosity
 - humped shoulders
 - round shoulders
 - rounded back
 - slight stoop
 - stoop
 - stooping [slouching] posture

Et si quelque importun venait me déranger pendant que mon regard repose sur ce délicieux cadran, si quelque Génie malhonnête et intolérant, quelque Démon du contretemps venait me dire: “Que regardes-tu là avec tant de soin? Que cherches-tu dans les yeux de cet être? Y vois-tu l’heure, mortel prodigue et fainéant?” je répondrais sans hésiter: “Oui, je vois l’heure; il est l’Eternité!”

[And if some importunate person were to come and disturb me while my gaze rests on this delicious dial, if some false and intolerant spirit, some demon of unlucky accident, were to come and say to me, “What are you looking at with such intensity? What do you seek in the eyes of this being? Do you see there the time? Ah, spendthrift and do-nothing mortal!” I should reply unhesitatingly “Yes, I see the time; it is eternity.”]

——-

猫背 (neko-ze; cat-back)
 - curved back
 - dowager’s hump
 - forward head posture
 - gibbosity
 - humped shoulders
 - round shoulders
 - rounded back
 - slight stoop
 - stoop
 - stooping [slouching] posture


The ending of a session cannot but be experienced by the subject as a punctuation of his progress. We know how he calculates the moment of its arrival in order to tie it to his own timetable, or even to his evasive maneuvers, and how he anticipates it by weighing it like a weapon and watching out for it as he would for a place of shelter.
 It is a fact, which can be plainly seen in the study of manuscripts of symbolic writings, whether the Bible or the Chinese canonical texts, that the absence of punctuation in them is a source of ambiguity. Punctuation, once inserted, establishes the meaning; changing the punctuation renews or upsets it; and incorrect punctuation distorts it.
 The indifference with which ending a session after a fixed number of minutes has elapsed interrupts the subject’s moments of haste can be fatal to the conclusion toward which his discourse was rushing headlong, and can even set a misunderstanding in stone, if not furnish a pretext for a retaliatory ruse.
 Beginners seem more struck by the effects of this impact than others—which gives one the impression that for others it is just a routine.
 The neutrality we manifest in strictly applying the rule that session be of a specified length obviously keeps us on the path of non-action.
 But this nonaction has a limit, otherwise we would never intervene at all—so why make intervening impossible at this point, thereby privileging it?
 The danger that arises if this point takes on an obsessive value for the analyst lies simply in the fact that it lends itself to the subject’s connivance, a connivance that is available not only to the obsessive, although it takes on a special force for him, owing precisely to his impression that he is working. The sense of forced labor that envelops everything for this subject, including even his leisure activities, is only too well known.

Jacques Lacan, The Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis

 The free labourer .. sells his very self, and that by fractions. He auctions off eight, 10, 12, 15 hours of his life, one day like the next, to the highest bidder, to the owner of raw materials, tools, and the means of life – i.e., to the capitalist. The labourer belongs neither to an owner nor to the soil, but eight, 10, 12, 15 hours of his daily life belong to whomsoever buys them

—————

 The occupier is to hang up a “legible” printed notice stating the hours for the beginning and ending of work and the times allowed for the several meals. Children beginning work before 12 noon may not be again employed after I p.m. The afternoon shift must therefore consist of other children than those employed in the morning. Of the hour and a half for meal-times,

“one hour thereof at the least shall be given before three of the clock in the afternoon … and at the same period of the day. No child or young person shall be employed more than five hours before I p.m. without an interval for meal-time of at least 30 minutes. No child or young person [or female] shall be employed or allowed to remain in any room in which any manufacturing process is then [i.e., at mealtimes] carried on,” &c.

 It has been seen that these minutiae, which, with military uniformity, regulate by stroke of the clock the times, limits, pauses of the work were not at all the products of Parliamentary fancy. They developed gradually out of circumstances as natural laws of the modern mode of production. Their formulation, official recognition, and proclamation by the State, were the result of a long struggle of classes. One of their first consequences was that in practice the working-day of the adult males in factories became subject to the same limitations, since in most processes of production the co-operation of the children. young persons, and women is indispensable. On the whole, therefore, during the period from 1844 to 1847, the 12 hours’ working-day became general and uniform in all branches of industry under the Factory Act.

Karl Marx, Capital Volume 1

 Thus the psychoanalyst knows better than anyone else that the pint is to figure out [entendre] to which “part” of this discourse the significant term is relegated, and this is how he proceeds in the best of cases: he takes the description of an everyday event as a fable addressed as a word to the wide, a long prosopopeia as a direct interjection, and, contrariwise, a simple slip of the tongue as a highly complex statement, and even the rest of a silence as the whole lyrical development it stands in for.
 It is, therefore, a propitious punctuation that gives meaning to the subject’s discourse. This is why the ending of the session—which current technique makes into an interruption that is determiend purely by the clock and, as such, takes no account of the thread of the subject’s discourse—plays the part of a scansion which has the full value of an intervention by the analyst that is designed to precipitate concluding moments. Thus we must free the ending from its routine framework and employ it for all the useful aims of analytic technique.

Jacques Lacan, The Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis

Et si quelque importun venait me déranger pendant que mon regard repose sur ce délicieux cadran, si quelque Génie malhonnête et intolérant, quelque Démon du contretemps venait me dire: “Que regardes-tu là avec tant de soin? Que cherches-tu dans les yeux de cet être? Y vois-tu l’heure, mortel prodigue et fainéant?” je répondrais sans hésiter: “Oui, je vois l’heure; il est l’Eternité!”


Empty labour - international statistics suggest that the average time an employee spends engaged in private activities is 1 and a half to 2 hours a day. Laurie Taylor talks to Roland Paulsen, a Swedish sociologist, who interviewed 43 workers who spent around half their working hours on ‘empty labour’. Are such employees merely ‘slacking’ or are such little’ subversions’ acts of resistance to the way work appropriates so much of our time? They’re joined by the writer, Michael Bywater. By contrast, Jane Sturges, discusses her research into professionals caught up, both reluctantly as well as willingly, in a ‘long hours’ work culture.

We have seen that when commodities are exchanged, their exchange value manifests itself as something totally independent of their use value. But if we abstract from their use value, there remains their Value as defined above. Therefore, the common substance that manifests itself in the exchange value of commodities, whenever they are exchanged, is their value. The progress of our investigation will show that exchange value is the only form in which the value of commodities can manifest itself or be expressed. For the present, however, we have to consider the nature of value independently of this, its form.

A use value, or useful article, therefore, has value only because human labour in the abstract has been embodied or materialised in it. How, then, is the magnitude of this value to be measured? Plainly, by the quantity of the value-creating substance, the labour, contained in the article. The quantity of labour, however, is measured by its duration, and labour time in its turn finds its standard in weeks, days, and hours.

Some people might think that if the value of a commodity is determined by the quantity of labour spent on it, the more idle and unskilful the labourer, the more valuable would his commodity be, because more time would be required in its production. The labour, however, that forms the substance of value, is homogeneous human labour, expenditure of one uniform labour power. The total labour power of society, which is embodied in the sum total of the values of all commodities produced by that society, counts here as one homogeneous mass of human labour power, composed though it be of innumerable individual units. Each of these units is the same as any other, so far as it has the character of the average labour power of society, and takes effect as such; that is, so far as it requires for producing a commodity, no more time than is needed on an average, no more than is socially necessary. The labour time socially necessary is that required to produce an article under the normal conditions of production, and with the average degree of skill and intensity prevalent at the time. The introduction of power-looms into England probably reduced by one-half the labour required to weave a given quantity of yarn into cloth. The hand-loom weavers, as a matter of fact, continued to require the same time as before; but for all that, the product of one hour of their labour represented after the change only half an hour’s social labour, and consequently fell to one-half its former value.

We see then that that which determines the magnitude of the value of any article is the amount of labour socially necessary, or the labour time socially necessary for its production. Each individual commodity, in this connexion, is to be considered as an average sample of its class. Commodities, therefore, in which equal quantities of labour are embodied, or which can be produced in the same time, have the same value. The value of one commodity is to the value of any other, as the labour time necessary for the production of the one is to that necessary for the production of the other. “As values, all commodities are only definite masses of congealed labour time.”

The value of a commodity would therefore remain constant, if the labour time required for its production also remained constant. But the latter changes with every variation in the productiveness of labour. This productiveness is determined by various circumstances, amongst others, by the average amount of skill of the workmen, the state of science, and the degree of its practical application, the social organisation of production, the extent and capabilities of the means of production, and by physical conditions. For example, the same amount of labour in favourable seasons is embodied in 8 bushels of corn, and in unfavourable, only in four. The same labour extracts from rich mines more metal than from poor mines. Diamonds are of very rare occurrence on the earth’s surface, and hence their discovery costs, on an average, a great deal of labour time. Consequently much labour is represented in a small compass. Jacob doubts whether gold has ever been paid for at its full value. This applies still more to diamonds. According to Eschwege, the total produce of the Brazilian diamond mines for the eighty years, ending in 1823, had not realised the price of one-and-a-half years’ average produce of the sugar and coffee plantations of the same country, although the diamonds cost much more labour, and therefore represented more value. With richer mines, the same quantity of labour would embody itself in more diamonds, and their value would fall. If we could succeed at a small expenditure of labour, in converting carbon into diamonds, their value might fall below that of bricks. In general, the greater the productiveness of labour, the less is the labour time required for the production of an article, the less is the amount of labour crystallised in that article, and the less is its value; and vice versâ, the less the productiveness of labour, the greater is the labour time required for the production of an article, and the greater is its value. The value of a commodity, therefore, varies directly as the quantity, and inversely as the productiveness, of the labour incorporated in it.

[Karl Marx, Capital Volume 1]


In England, for example, in the 1840s, everyone kept local time. So Bristol might be 20 minutes behind London because that was the time when the sun passed local meridian at noon. But with travel, with commerce, you suddenly had people being able to move faster than the sun. So if you left London and took a train to Bristol you would arrive 20 minutes early, by the Bristol time. So it was really in the 1847 that there was a national railway time system that was based on Greenwich mean time.

… There was a lot of resistance. There were number of things. First “we want our time in Bristol;” secondly it was called “railway aggression,” the idea that we might fear global companies. There were fearing this idea of an Anonymous government. The third thing was religious: people said, well, God put sun there for a reason, it’s not for us as men to think up a different time system. And the final people who actually resisted were the Astronomers, because they were saying, no, let’s go back to measuring the stars, and you can’t just arbitrarily say “this is and hour” or “this isn’t an hour,” we really should have local time.